Town of Borghi

Information about Borghi

ZIP Code: 47030 - Town Hall address: Piazza Lombardini 7, Phone: ++39 0541 947405, Fax: ++39 0541 947405, E-Mail: protocollo@comune.borghi.fc.it. Province: Forlì-Cesena. Distance from the chief town (Forlì-Cesena): 51 chilometri. Inhabitants: 2,843 (Istat 2016). Denomination: Borghigiani. For the town of Borghi are also available the following PEC o CEC-PEC e-mail addresses: comune.borghi@cert.provincia.fc.it (pec).

The common family names in the municipality of Borghi

The most common five family names

There are in Borghi Surname
44.96 Magnani
33.72 Brigliadori
33.72 Fabbri
25.29 Benedettini
25.29 Venturi
Geographical data, Population and Statistical data

Geographic data: Surface: 30,23 square kilometers. Height above sea level: 267 meters. Min. height: 69 meters. Max. Height: 447 meters. Altimetric difference: 378 meters.

Population and Statistical data: Population density: 67,57 inhabitants per square kilometer. Population on 1991: 1.793 inhabitants - Population on 2001: 2.034 inhabitants - Population on 2011: 2.718 inhabitants .- Percentual variation 2001 -1991: 13,44%. Percentual variation 2011 -1991: 51,59%. Percentual variation 2011 -2001: 33,63%. Families: 724. Medium value of the components of a generic family: 2,81 people.

Most recent data about Population: On January, 1 2016 there where 2,843 inhabitants in Borghi, 1,431 males and 1,412 females. There where 34 inhabitants less than one year old (21 males and 13 females) and 2 inhabitants being one-hundred years old or more (0 males and 2 females).

Foreign citizens: On January 1, 2014 were resident in Borghi 185 foreign citizens, 84 of whom males and 101 females.On December 31 of the same year were resident in Borghi 236 foreign citizens, 128 of whom males and 108 females, thus being the 8.68% of the population of Borghi.

Workers: 422 people, that is the 20,75% of the inhabitants of the town of Borghi.

Industries:50 Workers:186 Percentual value:44,08%
Services:37 Workers:63 Percentual value:14,93%
Administration:20 Workers:75 Percentual value:17,77%
Others:36 Workers:98 Percentual value:23,22%

Data about population living in Borghi

NOTICE: in what follows data refers to Borghi, where rises the City Hall of Borghi, (and then not to the whole territory of Borghi). For the sake of simplicity we will us the term of Borghi.

In Borghi live four hundred and thirty-three people: two hundred and six are males and two hundred and twenty-seven are females.

There are one hundred and eighty-four singles (ninety-five males and eighty-nine females). There are one hundred and eighty-eight people married, and six people legally separed. There are also twelve divorced people and fourty-three widows and widowers.

Please find in what follows the table of the distribution of inhabitants by age.

Age 0-45-910-1415-1920-2425-2930-3435-3940-4445-4950-5455-5960-6465-6970-74>74
Males141397691221141918131113720
Females91591015813121622121511131532
Total23281817211725333041302822262252

Data about foreigners living in Borghi

In Borghi live thirty-four foreigners, eleven are males and twenty-three are females. 14 come from Europa, 17 from Africa, 3 from America, 0 from Asia and 0 from Oceania.

Please find in what follows the table of the distribution of foreigners by age.

AgeMalesFemalesTotal
From 0 to 29 years6915
From 30 to 54 years41014
More than 54 years old145

Education in Borghi

There are in Borghi four hundred and two people in school age, one hundred and eighty-nine are males and two hundred and thirteen females.

GenereUniversity degreeHigh school diplomaMiddle School diploma Primary School diplomaLiteratesIlliterates
Males13458035160
Females16437057216
Total298815092376



Employment rates and workers in Borghi

There are in Borghi 196 people aged 15 years or more. 176 are employed and 17 were previously employed but now are unemployed and seeking for a new job. There are 116 males aged 15 years or more, 109 are employed and 6 were previously employed but now are unemployed and seeking for a new job. There are 80 females aged 15 years or more, 67 are employed and 11 s were previously employed but now are unemployed and seeking for a new job.

Families and their compositions

There are in Borghi 175 families, for a total of 433 people.

Please find in what follows a table showing the number of families along with the number of people for each family.

People123456 or more
Families50523226123

There are 175 famiglie living in Borghi. 39 live in rented houses, 121 live in houses of their own property  and 15 live in houses for different reasons.

The buildings and their characteristics in Borghi

There are in Borghi 126 buildings, but only 124 are used. 115 buildings are for residential use, 9 buildings are for commercial or productive pourposes. Among the 115 buildings for residential use 103 were build using bricks of tuffs, 11 were built using concrete and 1 were built using other materials like steel, wood and so on. Among the 115 buildings for residential use 15 are in excellent condition, 93 are in good conditions, 7 are in mediocre conditions and 0 are in bad conditions.

In the following three tables the buildings built for residential use in Borghi are classified by building year, by floors number and by rooms number.

Buildings in Borghi by year of construction

DateBefore year 19191919-451946-601961-701971-801981-901991-20002001-05After year 2005
Buildings43912111772014

Buildings in Borghi by floors number

NUmber of floorsOneTwoThreeFour or more
Buildings2082121

Buildings in Borghi by rooms number

Number of roomsOneTwoThree or fourFrom five to eightFrom nine to fifteenSixteen or more
Buildings845431720


Taxpayers, incomes and taxes in Borghi

Number of taxpayers for the municipality of Borghi: 1,937

Incomes and taxpayers by type of income

Category Taxpayers Income Yearly Average Monthly Average Previous Year Variation
Income from buildings 906 € 797,841 € 880.62 € 73.38 € 76.25 € -2.86
Income from employment 1,074 € 17,993,038 € 16,753.29 € 1,396.11 € 1,412.97 € -16.86
Retirement income 610 € 7,793,938 € 12,776.95 € 1,064.75 € 1,058.84 € 5.90
Income from self-employment 16 € 458,206 € 28,637.88 € 2,386.49 € 2,707.81 € -321.32
Entrepreneurs 6 € 72,707 € 12,117.83 € 1,009.82 € 829.27 € 180.55
Entrepreneurs with simplified accounting 80 € 1,577,420 € 19,717.75 € 1,643.15 € 1,195.60 € 447.55
Income from equity investments 132 € 1,861,170 € 14,099.77 € 1,174.98 € 1,237.53 € -62.55

Income, taxes and municipal and regional surcharges

Category Taxpayers Income Yearly Average Monthly Average Previous Year Variation
Taxable income 1,866 € 29,419,037 € 15,765.83 € 1,313.82 € 1,303.64 € 10.18
Additional tax revenue 1,398 € 26,685,460 € 19,088.31 € 1,590.69 € 1,597.96 € -7.27
Net tax 1,442 € 4,450,866 € 3,086.59 € 257.22 € 258.31 € -1.09
Municipal additional 1,354 € 106,198 € 78.43 € 6.54 € 6.52 € 0.01
Regional additional 1,380 € 407,945 € 295.61 € 24.63 € 25.56 € -0.93

Incomes and taxpayers grouped by income

Category Taxpayers Income Yearly average Monthly average Previous Year Variation
Total income less than € 0 13 € -81,738 € -6,287.54 € -523.96 € -629.10 € 105.14
Total income from € 0 to € 10,000 631 € 3,141,874 € 4,979.20 € 414.93 € 415.23 € -0.30
Total income from € 10,000 to € 15,000 340 € 4,221,207 € 12,415.31 € 1,034.61 € 1,026.95 € 7.66
Total income from € 15,000 to € 26,000 656 € 12,952,533 € 19,744.71 € 1,645.39 € 1,636.92 € 8.47
Total income from € 26,000 to € 55,000 245 € 8,091,925 € 33,028.27 € 2,752.36 € 2,761.33 € -8.98
Total income from € 55,000 to € 75,000 24 € 1,520,770 € 63,365.42 € 5,280.45 € 5,291.94 € -11.49
Total income from € 75,000 to € 120,000 10 € 930,619 € 93,061.90 € 7,755.16 € 7,457.58 € 297.58
Total income of more than € 120,000 0 € 0 € 0.00 € 0.00 € 0.00 € 0.00

Statistical data about Borghi

The tables and the 3D graphics about people in Borghi

TARI, TARES, IMU, IMI, IMIS in Borghi

The local taxes in Borghi ordered by kind and date, along with their old values ones.

Region Province Town Date Kind
Emilia-Romagna Forlì-Cesena Borghi 2014-05-15 "IMU"
Emilia-Romagna Forlì-Cesena Borghi 2013-12-09 "IMU"
Emilia-Romagna Forlì-Cesena Borghi 2012-10-23 "IMU"
Emilia-Romagna Forlì-Cesena Borghi 2012-05-28 "IMU"
Emilia-Romagna Forlì-Cesena Borghi 2016-06-03 "TARI"
Emilia-Romagna Forlì-Cesena Borghi 2014-05-14 "TARI"
Emilia-Romagna Forlì-Cesena Borghi 2015-07-27 "TASI"
Emilia-Romagna Forlì-Cesena Borghi 2014-05-14 "TASI"
Highways and motorways in Borghi
No data available for the town of Borghi.

The expenditure items and their amounts for the Municipality of Borghi

For the town of Borghi are presented in what follows data on expenditure items and their related amounts, ranked in descending order by amount of expenditure, from the highest amount to the lowest one for the most recent year available. Data are subject to revision and integration depending by available updates. Data Source: Italian General Accounting Office.


Description Amounts
Current transfers to Unions of Municipalities € 423,088.36
Salary items paid to permanent staff € 371,672.51
Service contracts for waste collection € 254,156.86
Mandatory contributions for staff € 112,288.20
Service contracts for public lighting € 99,323.78
Payment of VAT withholdings due to splitting VAT (split payment) € 88,072.16
Tax withholding taxes on employee income collected on behalf of third parties € 82,209.10
Buildings for commercial use € 80,000.00
Road infrastructure € 51,560.43
Indemnity and other fees except for the reimbursement of expenses per mission paid to permanent staff € 49,739.07
Repayment of loans and other medium / long-term loans to Cassa Depositi e Prestiti - CDP SPA management € 46,664.64
Payments of social security and social security withholding taxes collected on behalf of third parties € 45,662.24
Current transfers to Comuni € 38,584.73
Other capital expenditure no. € 35,186.59
Regional tax on productive activities (IRAP) € 33,866.51
Works for soil arrangement € 33,519.07
Reimbursements for personnel expenses (command posting off role agreements etc.) € 32,383.59
Ordinary maintenance and repairs of real estate € 30,337.55
Electric energy € 28,039.87
Current transfers to Provinces € 27,409.12
Ordinary maintenance and repairs of land and material goods not produced € 25,388.37
Furniture and furnishings a.c. € 23,335.61
FUEL FUELS AND LUBRICANTS € 22,767.42
Interest payable to Cassa Depositi e Prestiti SPA on mortgages and other medium / long-term loans € 22,247.96
Museums, theaters and libraries of historical and artistic cultural value € 21,612.34
Insurance premiums for civil liability towards third parties € 21,402.72
Foodstuffs € 20,432.54
Salary items paid to temporary staff € 19,741.72
Institutional administration bodies - Indemnity € 19,517.28
Lease of real estate € 19,245.38
Other payments of withholding taxes to employees on behalf of third parties € 19,005.60
Other different services n.a.c. € 17,144.73
Ordinary maintenance and repairs of vehicles for civil use of security and public order € 17,086.93
Contributions for severance indemnity € 16,131.75
Utilities and fees for other services n.a.c. € 15,864.46
Repayment of loans and other medium-long term loans to Cassa Depositi e Prestiti - Gestione Tesoro € 14,945.51
Other transfers to families n.a.c. € 14,440.64
Other insurance premiums against damages € 12,994.11
CLEANING AND LAUNDRY SERVICES € 12,370.80
Compensation to the institutional audit control bodies and other institutional administration tasks € 12,124.66
Gas € 11,763.82
Current transfers to Private Social Institutions € 11,665.00
Other goods and consumables n.a.c. € 11,439.37
Machinery € 10,000.00
Repayments of the current portion to Local Administrations of sums not due or collected in excess € 9,757.12
Debt VAT payments for sales operations € 9,337.73
Other professional and specialist services n.a.c. € 8,517.26
Water € 6,933.88
Current transfers to Regions and autonomous provinces € 6,852.28
Ordinary maintenance and repairs of plant and machinery € 6,745.88
Legal patronage € 6,353.52
Fixed telephony € 6,086.33
Extraordinary for permanent staff € 6,063.39
Tax withholding taxes on income from self-employment on behalf of third parties € 5,358.78
Other expenses for administrative services € 5,309.46
Professional assignments for the realization of investments € 5,098.36
Specialized press € 4,347.10
Current transfers to other investee companies € 4,205.64
Family allowances € 3,906.00
Other different material goods € 3,782.00
Current transfers to the Ministry of Education - Educational institutions € 3,773.70
Ordinary maintenance and repairs of real estate with historical and artistic cultural value € 3,659.94
Service contracts for the fight against stray dogs € 3,288.00
Transfers on behalf of third parties to families € 3,032.40
Rental of plant and machinery € 2,927.40
Other auxiliary services n.a.c. € 2,787.70
Purchase of services for third parties € 2,655.25
Other non-medical technical-specialist materials € 2,306.94
Motor vehicle traffic tax (motor vehicle tax) € 2,236.23
Expenses for financial services n.a.c. € 1,939.83
Quotas of associations € 1,890.91
Public transport service contracts € 1,740.63
Office furniture and furnishings € 1,664.39
Taxes and similar income charged to the institution n.a.c. € 1,584.35
Registration and stamp duty € 1,385.25
Interest payable to Cassa Depositi e Prestiti - Treasury management on mortgages and other medium / long-term loans € 1,306.25
Stationery and printed paper € 1,301.24
Buildings for residential use € 1,223.60
EQUIPMENT € 1,212.68
Other current expenses n.a.c. € 1,076.27
Restitution of third party security or contractual deposits € 1,000.00
Ordinary maintenance and repairs of furniture and furnishings € 824.72
Postage costs € 798.10
Ordinary maintenance and repairs of other tangible assets € 549.00
PRINTING AND BINDING € 392.84
Assets for electoral consultations € 288.69
Mission and travel allowances € 259.06
COMPUTER EQUIPMENT € 184.22
PUBLICATIONS € 178.73
Current transfers to other companies € 82.64
Refund for travel and moving € 53.40
OTHER PAYMENTS TO REGULATE (payments encoded by the treasurer) € 33.50
Current transfers to Ministries € 11.98

The income items and their amounts for the Municipality of Borghi

For the town of Borghi are presented in what follows data on incomes items and their related amounts, ranked in descending order by amount of income, from the highest amount to the lowest one for the most recent year available. Data are subject to revision and integration depending by available updates. Data Source: Italian General Accounting Office.


Description Amounts
Income from property concessions € 735,213.13
Contributions to investments by Regions and autonomous provinces € 421,066.77
Equalization funds from the State € 349,332.52
Own municipal tax levied as a result of ordinary management activity € 231,019.51
Municipal tax on waste and services € 149,161.90
Municipal solid waste disposal tax collected as a result of the ordinary management activity € 106,970.00
Withholdings due to VAT write-off (split payment) € 105,221.54
Tribute for indivisible services (TASI) collected as a result of the ordinary management activity € 104,500.13
Additional municipal tax IRPEF collected as a result of the ordinary management activity € 102,866.55
Tax withholding on income from employment for third parties € 101,373.24
Disposal of buildings for residential use € 88,000.00
Current transfers from Municipalities € 79,006.98
OTHER COLLECTIONS TO REGULATE (collections encoded by the treasurer) € 74,739.61
Current transfers from Regions and autonomous provinces € 55,241.22
Social security and welfare deductions on income from employees for third parties € 45,662.24
Income from canteens € 45,324.75
Building permits € 34,534.48
Income from school transport € 30,021.69
Other capital income no. € 27,655.80
Leases of other real estate € 26,965.88
Current transfers from Ministries € 25,990.85
Revenue from the distribution of dividends from other investee companies not included in public administrations € 19,514.75
Others held by employees on behalf of third parties € 19,005.60
Canon occupation spaces and public areas € 17,088.69
Collection of current taxes on behalf of third parties € 13,439.50
Own municipal taxes collected as a result of verification and control activities € 11,677.92
Current transfers from other regional and sub-regional agencies and agencies € 9,843.11
Income from funeral transport € 9,092.00
Building conduits and amnesty illegal building works € 8,333.50
Proceeds from the release of documents and stationery rights € 8,056.28
Other revenue for different rounds € 7,108.53
Sponsorships from other companies € 6,246.00
Tax deductions on income from self-employment on behalf of third parties € 5,458.78
Revenue income € 4,733.81
Income from secretarial rights and deed € 3,552.79
Revenue income € 3,398.41
Current transfers from the Ministry of Education - Scholastic Institutions € 3,013.34
Revenue income € 2,727.10
Revenue income € 2,606.32
Municipal tax on advertising and public billposting rights collected as a result of ordinary management activity € 2,069.27
Collections for actions of recourse against third parties € 1,903.20
Income from services n.a.c. € 1,840.00
Establishment of security deposits or contractual third parties € 1,566.00
Revenue income € 1,504.19
Transfers from other Local Administrations n.a.c. for third party transactions € 610.50
Proceeds from fines € 50.00
Other current receipts n.a.c. € 16.00
Interest income from treasury accounts of the state or other public administrations € 1.61

Sorroundings municipalities and hamlets of Borghi

The municipality of Borghi is surrounded by the following 2 municipalities. These latter are reported ordererd by increasing distances from Borghi.

Town Surrounding towns Distance
Borghi Poggio Torriana (RN) Km. 5.6
Borghi Santarcangelo di Romagna (RN) Km. 8.3

In the territory of Borghi also rise the villages of Case sparse (-- km), Castellaro (1,20 km), La Tomba (3,64 km), Lo Stradone (3,59 km), Masrola (4,84 km), San Giovanni in Galilea (3,61 km), San Martino in Converseto (3,26 km), Tribola (2,08 km), Villa Soci (3,20 km), Villaggio Cornacchiara (-- km).

The number in parentheses following each village name indicate the distance between the same village and the municipality of Borghi.

Weather and information about Borghi
Detailed and zoomable map of Borghi

Look at the interactive map of Borghi and get the road maps, the satellite maps and the mixed ones too. Interactive maps of Borghi also allow an immediate view of: bar, restaurants, pubs, pizzerias, dancing, night clubs, banks, jewellers, beauty centers, hair stylists, supermarkets, pharmacies.

Maps of Borghi

Just fill in the free text search box placed on top of the map with any of previous categories and then press enter. Please feel free to use the same free text search box placed on top of the map to find any kind of business activities you're interested into.

Where to stay in Borghi and its neighborhoods

Hotels, Resorts, B&B in Borghi and its neighborhoods.

You can arrange the results by number of stars, by popularity, by distance or even by the guest review score choosing among young couples, mature couples, families with young children, families with older children, people withfriends, or solo travellers.

Free ads in Borghi

Most recent free ads in Borghi, province of Forlì-Cesena, region Emilia-Romagna, updated at 09:44:38, 21 April 2018. Place your free ad on Borghi: no registration needed. Place your free ad.

Up to now there is no free ad placed in Borghi

Most recent free ads in the province of Forlì-Cesena
Affitto stagionale per vacanze a Riccione 2017-07-11
Tranquillo ed ampio trilocale, a due passi dal mare 2017-07-07
cerco alloggio per una persona e un cane bassotto taglia nana . 2016-04-19
Most recent free ads in the region Emilia-Romagna
MANUTENTORE ELETTRICO INDUTRIALE 2018-04-11
Cerco amica di consandolo 2018-02-08
COLF COLLABORATRICE DOMESTICA LAVORI DOMESTICI PULIZIE ANCHE UFFICI E LOCALI VARI 2018-01-29

Electronic invoice codes for the Municipal Departments and Offices of Borghi

Departments, Offices, Officials and Codes for electronic invoices for the town of Borghi

1 Offices where found.They are reported in alphabetical order in what follows.

OfficeUnique CodeManager
Uff_eFatturaPA
Piazza Lombardini, 7
47030 Borghi
Fiscal Code: 00664610409
UFTTIS Mirella Mazza
comune.borghi@cert.provincia.fc.it (PEC)
The Town Council of Borghi

Please find in what follows the full listing of the Mayor, the Aldermen and the Councillors of the municipaly of Borghi that are actually on charge.

Sindaco

Piero Mussoni , nato il 05/10/1975 a CESENA (FO).
Titolo di studio: Licenza di scuola media superiore o titoli equipollenti
Categoria professionale: Geometri e periti edili
eletto il 25/05/2014 e nominato il 26/05/2014 - Partito: Lista civica Insieme per Borghi .

Vicesindaco

Ins Marina Tosi.

Assessore

Mirella Mazza.

Consigliere - Candidato Sindaco

Rag Luigi Deluca.

Consigliere

Giovanna Barbieri, Geom Loris Gessi, Nevio Magnani, Mirella Mazza, Daniela Neri, Geom Marco Giovanni Battista Pepe, Geom Sara Rigoni, Giuseppe Ruggeri, Ins Marina Tosi.

Additional biographical information, educational qualifications and occupations exercised by the Aldermen and Councillors of the municipality of Borghi are available by clicking the "Additional Information" button.


The Parishes in Borghi

There are 2 parishes in Borghi.

ParishTownVillageAddressParishionersDiocese
S. CristoforoBorghiVia Roma, 1211,935Diocese of Rimini
S. Giovanni in GalileaBorghiSan Giovanni in GalileaVia S. Giovanni in Galilea591Diocese of Rimini

Please find in the previous table the full listing of the parish in Borghi.


Banks and bank branches in Borghi

Number of banks matching search criteria: 2

Region Province Town Hamlet Address Zip Code Bank ABI CAB
Emilia-Romagna Forlì-Cesena Borghi Lo Stradone Via Provinciale Uso, 42 47030 Banca Malatestiana - Credito Cooperativo - Societa' Cooperativa 07090 67730
Emilia-Romagna Forlì-Cesena Borghi - Via Roma, 63 47030 Unicredit, Societa' per Azioni 02008 67730
Pharmacies in Borghi and surroundings

Pharmacies that satisfies che search criteria: 2

Name Town Address Hamlet ZIP Kind VAT number Street View
Centrale Dr.Ssa Attina' Annunziata Lucia Borghi Via Roma, 69 - 47030 Ordinaria 02134760798 Photo and maps
Scarpellini Borghi Via Buozzi, 18 - 47030 Ordinaria 04227840404 Photo and maps
The Parapharmacies in Borghi and surroundings

There is no Parapharmacy in Borghi.

The Schools in Borghi

Schools that satisfies che search criteria: 3

Name Kind Town Address Email and Pec Phone and Fax ZIP
Sogliano - Borghi Scuola dell'Infanzia Borghi Via Roma N. 119 foic80200n@istruzione.it
0541947734
0541947734
47030
Sogliano - G. Marconi Scuola Primaria Borghi Via Roma foic80200n@istruzione.it
0541947767
47030
Sogliano Sez. Borghi Scuola Secondaria di Primo Grado Borghi Viale Roma N. 61 foic80200n@istruzione.it
0541947499
0541947499
47030
Videos of Borghi

A selection of videos about Borghi, Forlì-Cesena, Emilia-Romagna

A first video is shown: clicking on the PLAY button the video will start.

Inside the video window there are several commands and a Playlist button: .

Press the Playlist button to access the complete listing of the available videos, along with their titles. It will suffice to scroll through the list using the cursor to select any of the videos.

Once the video started you can use the and buttons to scroll through the videos. Each video can be displayed in full screen.

Your articles about Borghi

Please add your content filling in the following form.. Your e-mail address will not be shown, so to avoid spamming.

Title:
Text:
Characters remaining:

Photo (max 512 KB .gif o .jpg):
E-Mail:

By using this free service the users authorize the owner of the site, Reti e Sistemi, Corso Piersanti Mattarella n.12 Trapani, Italy, (1) to store the data in its own database and to display them in full or partly within the site italia.indettaglio.it; (2) to use the data for eventually mailing information, advertising or promotional information accordingly to the Italian Law 675/96. At any time, in accordance with the article 13 of the same law 675/96, users can have access to their data, request the modification or the cancellation of the same or oppose their use for free by contacting:Reti e Sistemi, Corso Piersanti Mattarella n. 12 Trapani, Italy. In case of a request for cancellation or opposition to their use in accordance with what above stated the data will be removed from the databases and will not be more visible in the pages of italia.indettaglio.it unless a new application is submitted. RETI E SISTEMI Srl reserves itself the right of not to accept the received requests or of to adapt the same for internal needs.

Reti e Sistemi S.r.l.

The Reti e Sistemi S.r.l. founded in 2000 by a group of professionals with decades of experience in Information Technology to be able to meet the most diverse computing needs of its valued customers.

Information